- What are the features of Microsoft Windows?
- Control Panel
- Device Manager
- Disk Cleanup
- Event Viewer
- File Explorer
- Internet browser
- Microsoft Paint
- Notification area
- Power User Tasks Menu
- Registry Editor
- Start and Start menu
- System Information
- Task Manager
- Windows search box
- OPERATING SYSTEMS AND UTILITIES
- Помогите с вопросами по информатике.
- Understanding Operating Systems
- Computer Basics: Understanding Operating Systems
- Lesson 8: Understanding Operating Systems
- What is an operating system?
- The operating system’s job
- Types of operating systems
- Microsoft Windows
- Operating systems for mobile devices
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What are the features of Microsoft Windows?
Microsoft Windows includes a wide array of features, tools, and applications to help get the most out of Windows and your computer.
To learn more about the features included in Microsoft Windows, click a link below.
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The Control Panel is a collection of tools to help you configure and manage the resources on your computer. You can change settings for printers, video, audio, mouse, keyboard, date and time, user accounts, installed applications, network connections, power saving options, and more.
In Windows 10, the Control Panel is located in the Start menu, under Windows System.
Many of the Control Panel settings are also accessible in the Windows 10 Settings menu.
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Cortana is a virtual assistant introduced in Windows 10 that accepts voice commands. Cortana can answer questions, search your computer or Internet, set appointments and reminders, perform online purchases, and more. Cortana has similarities to other voice-activated services, such as Siri, Alexa, or Google Assistant, with the added benefit that it can search the information on your computer.
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The desktop is a fundamental part of the default GUI (graphical user interface) in Windows. It is a space where you can organize applications, folders, and documents, which appear as icons. Your desktop is always in the background, behind any other applications you’re running.
When you power on your computer and log in to Windows, the first thing you see is your desktop background, icons, and the taskbar. From here, you can access the installed programs on your computer from the Start menu, or by double-clicking any application shortcuts you may have on your desktop.
You can access your desktop at any time by pressing Windows key + D to minimize any running applications.
With the release of Windows 8 in 2012, the desktop was no longer the default GUI, replaced by the Start Screen. This change was short-lived, and the desktop returned as the default GUI in Windows 10.
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The Device Manager lists the hardware devices installed in a computer. It allows users to see what hardware is installed, view and update hardware drivers, and uninstall hardware through the Device Manager.
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The Disk Cleanup utility helps increase free disk space on your computer by removing temporary or unnecessary files. Running Disk Cleanup helps improve your computer’s performance, and create additional space to store your downloads, documents, and programs.
You can access Disk Cleanup from the File Explorer.
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The Event Viewer is an administrator tool displays errors and important events that happen on your computer. It helps troubleshoot advanced problems in your Windows system.
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The File Explorer, also called Windows Explorer, provides you with a view of the files and folders on the computer. You can browse the contents of your SSD, hard drive, and attached removable disks. You can search for files and folders, and open, rename, or delete them from the File Explorer.
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Your Internet browser is one of the most important applications on your computer. You can use it to find information on the Internet, view web pages, shop and buy merchandise, watch movies, play games, and more. Microsoft Edge is the default browser in Windows 10. Internet Explorer is included as the default browser in previous versions of Windows, from Windows 95 to Windows 8.1.
To open a new Edge browser window in Windows 10, open the Start menu and scroll down to Microsoft Edge.
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Included in Windows since November 1985, Microsoft Paint is a simple image editor that you can use to create, view, and edit digital images. It provides basic functionality to draw and paint pictures, resize and rotate photographs, and save pictures as different file types.
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Notepad is a simple text editor. You can use it to create, view, and edit text files. For instance, you can use Notepad to write a batch file, or a web page written in HTML.
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The notification area, also known as the system tray, displays the date and time, and shows icons of programs that are started with Windows. It also provides your Internet connection’s status and a speaker icon for adjusting sound volume.
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Power User Tasks Menu
Available in Windows 8 and Windows 10, the Power User Tasks Menu provides quick access to helpful and important Windows utilities. From this menu, you can open the Control Panel, Device Manager, File Explorer, Task Manager, and more.
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The Registry Editor allows you to view the Windows system registry, and edit registry keys. Computer technicians may use the Registry Editor to fix problems with the Windows operating system or installed software.
Making changes to the registry can cause your applications or system to stop functioning correctly. Don’t edit the registry if you’re not sure what your changing and always back up your registry by exporting it to a file before making changes.
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Available in Windows 8 and Windows 10, Settings allows you to change many aspects of Windows. You can change the desktop background, adjust power settings, review options for external devices, and more.
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Start and Start menu
The Start menu is a list of applications and utilities installed on your computer. You can open it by clicking Start on the left side of your taskbar.
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The System Information utility provides information about the computer, including hardware and Windows details. You can find out details about your computer’s hardware, including processor, memory, video card, and sound card. You can also view and configure environment variables, device drivers, services, and more.
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The Windows taskbar shows programs that are currently open, and a Quick Launch area that allows quick access to launch specific programs. The notification area is on the right side of the taskbar, showing the date and time, and programs running in the background.
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The Task Manager gives you an overview of what’s running on your computer. You can see how much of your system resources is used by each application (task), sorting by CPU, RAM, and disk I/O usage. If a program is frozen or not responding, you can right-click it in Task Manager and end the task, forcing it to quit.
Windows search box
The Windows search box is a convenient way to search for documents, pictures, videos, applications, and more. In Windows 10, the search box is also integrated with Cortana. The feature first appeared in Windows Vista.
The search box is on your taskbar by default. In Windows 10, if you don’t see the search box, right-click the taskbar and select Taskbar settings. Make sure Use small taskbar buttons is Off. Then, right-click the taskbar again, and select Cortana, Show search box.
OPERATING SYSTEMS AND UTILITIES
Operating system overview
An operating system (abbreviated OS) is a type of system software that acts as a mast controller for all the activities that take place within a computer system. It is one of the factors that determine your computer compatibilityand platform. The operating system interactswith application software, device drivers, and hardware to manage a computer’s resources. The term resource refers to any component that is required to perform work. For example, the processor is a resource. RAM, storage space, and peripherals are also resources.
Operating system manages different tasks:
— Managememory. OS allocates a specific area of RAM for each program that is open and running. OS is itself a program, so it requires RAM space too. A microprocessor works with data and executes instructions stored in RAM – one of your computer’s most important resources. When you want to run more than one program at a time, the OS has to allocate specific areas of memory for each program. When multiple programs are running, the OS must ensurethat instructions and data from one area of memory do not “leak” into an area allocated to another program. If an OS falls down on the job and fails to protect each program’s memory area, data can get corrupted, programs can “crash”, and your computer displays error messages.
— Manage processor resources. The operating system also controls the microprocessor – just at a slightly higher level. Every cycle of a computer’s microprocessor is a resource for accomplishing tasks. Many activities – called “processes” – compete for the attention of your computer’s microprocessor. OS must ensure that each activity “process” receives its share of microprocessor cycles. A computer can take advantage of performance-enhancing technologies such as multitasking,multithreading,multiprocessing,dual coreormultiple processors.
— Keep track of storage resources. OS stores and retrieves files from your disks and CDs. It remembers the names and locations of all your files and keeps track of empty spaces where new files can be stored.
— Ensure that input and output proceed in an orderly manner. OS communicates with device driver software so that data can travel smoothlybetween the computer and these peripheral resources. OS uses ‘buffers’ to collect and hold data while the computer is busy with other tasks.
— Establish basic elements of the user interface. A user interface can be definedas the combination of hardware and software that helps people and computers communicate with each other. Your computer’s user interface includes a display device, mouse, and keyboard that allow you to view and manipulate your computer environment. It also includes software elements, such as menus and toolbar buttons. A graphical user interface (GUI)features menus and icons that you can manipulate with the click of a mouse. A command-line interface requires you to memorize and type commands.
For nearly all PCs, servers, workstations, mainframes, and supercomputers, the operating system program is quite large, so most of it is stored on a hard disk. The operating system’s small bootstrap program is stored in ROM and supplies the instructions needed to load the operating system’s core into memory when the system boots. This core part of OS called the kernelprovides the most essential operating system services, such as memory management and file access. The kernel always stays in RAM all the time your computer is on. Other parts of OS, such as customization utilities, are loaded into RAM as they are needed.
Many operating systems provide helpful tools, called operating system utilities, that you can use to control and customize your computer equipment and work environment. They are typically accessed by using a GUI, such as the familiar Windows desktop. The most popular are: launch programs, manage files, get help, customize the user interface, and configure equipment.
One operating system might be better suited to some computing tasks than others. To provide clues to their strengths and weaknesses, operating systems are informally categorized using one or more of the following terms:
A single-user operating system expects to deal with one set of input devices – those that can be controlled by one user only.
A multiuser operating systemallows a single computer to deal with simultaneousinput, output, and processing requests from many users. One of its most difficult responsibilities is to schedule all the processing requests that a centralized computer must perform.
A network operating system provides communications and routing services that allow computers to share data, programs, and peripheral devices. The main difference between network OS and multiuser OS is that multiuser operating systems schedule requests for processing on a centralized computer, whereas a network operating system simply routes data and programs to each user’s local computer, where the actual processing takes place.
A desktop operating system is one that is designed for a personal computer. Typically, these operating systems are designed to accommodate a single user, but might also provide network capability.
Windows is the best-selling operating system. The number and variety of programs that run on Windows are unmatched by any other operating system, a fact that contributes to its dominant position as the most widely used desktop operating system.
Utility software is a type of system software that is designed to perform a specialized task, such as system maintenance or security. Utility software that does not come packaged with an operating system is often referred to as a third-party utility. In past years, antivirus software was a popular category of third-party utilities. With the recent influx of nuisance ads, intrusion attempts, and spam, utilities such as ad blockers, personal firewalls, and spam filters have also become best sellers. Filtering software is used by parents to block their children from objectionable Websites. Another popular category of utility software is system utilities. These utilities track down and fix disk errors, repair corrupted files, and give your PC a performance – enhancing tune-up.
A final group of utilities worth mentioning is designed for backing upand cleaning up hard disks, and shreddingfiles so they can’t be recovered. They can help you recover files deleted by mistake.
Comprehension check. Indicate the paragraph where the following ideas are found in the text.
1. Operating system’s main purpose is to control what happens behind the scene.
2. Your PC can sometimes recover from memory leak problems if you use the Ctl+Alt+Del key sequence to close the corrupted program.
3. The operating system must ensure that the microprocessor does not “spin its wheels” waiting for input while it could be working on some other processing projects.
4. Windows is installed on more than 80 % of the world’s personal computers.
5. The term “buffer” is a technical jargon for a region of memory that holds data waiting to be transferred from one device to another.
6. Many operating systems provide helpful tools, called operating system utilities, that you can use to control and customize your computer equipment and work environment.
1. In the text find the opposites to the given words.
roughly shred disorganize monopolize stop succeed break
2. Fill in the blanks choosing from the variants given.
1. An operating system … a computer’s resources, such as Ram, storage space, and peripherals.
a) allocates b) defines c) manages d) accommodates
2. To … more than one program at a time, the operating system must allocate specific areas of Ram for each program.
a) store b) install c) fix d) run
3. A graphical user-interface provides a way to point and click a mouse to … menu options and manipulate objects that appear on the screen.
a) feature b) deal with c) select d) manage
4. Handheld devices, such as PDAs and smartphones typically … single-user operating systems.
a) feature b) retrieve c) include d) establish
5. OS communicates with device driver software so that data can travel … between the computer and peripheral resources.
a) roughly b) smoothly c) simultaneously d) primary
a) variety b) security c) capability d) compatibility
3. Make three-word combinations using the words in columns and then fill in the gaps in the following sentences.
A: multiuser B: operating C: system
third user technologies
desktop enhancing interface
graphical operating system
performance party utilities
3. A … features menus and icons that you can manipulate with a click of a mouse.
4. A …, such as Windows, is designed for personal computers.
5. WinZip, WinAce are … that offer a variety of compression options.
4. Fill in the gaps in the text.
___ (computer/application) software tells the operating system what to do. The operating system tells the ___ (device/tool) drivers, device drivers tell the ___ (software/hardware), and the hardware actually does the work. The operating system___ (interacts/competes) with application software, device drivers, and hardware to ___ (manage/define) a computer’s ___ (resources/compatibility).
The core part of an operating system is called the ___ (kernel/cycle). In addition to this core, many operating systems ___ (provide/schedule) helpful tools, called ___ (utilities/capabilities).
Speaking. Discuss the following questions.
1. What is an operating system?
2. What does an operating system do?
3. How does an operating system manage processor resources?
4. Why does an operating system manage memory?
5. Where is the operating system stored?
6. What are utilities? What are the most popular ones?
7. How does the operating system affect the user interface?
Reading. Read the text and try to guess the meaning of the words in bold. Check your variants in the dictionary.
Most computers include some basic word processing, e-mail, and Internet access software, but computer owners want additional software to increase their computer’s productivity, business, learning, or entertainment capabilities.
Помогите с вопросами по информатике.
1. Видеокарта, процессор, мат. плата, оперативка, жёсткий диск, блок питания, сетевая карта. Перифирия: монитор, мышка, клавиатура, колонки. Видеокарта может быть встроенна в процессор, сетевая карта в мат. плату.
2. Форм-фактор компьютера это размеры материнской платы + корпуса ради компактности будущего компа. Форм фактор имеет стандарты mini-ATX например.
3. Да это универсальная игровая платформа с огромными возможностями и такой компьютер может быть и для бизнеса и даже как сервер, что даёт область применения в бизнесе онлайн компьютерных игр или аренды как хоста, так и VPS сервера.
4. Наличие умений выбора у выбирающего, связь видеокарты + процессора что есть основа как под цену компьютера, так и под требуемые задачи. Это начало.
5. Новые платформы снабжаются одними и теми же процессорами на 2016 год от Intel, что позволяет запускать на Mac платформе виртуальные ОС windows. Можно совместить платформы с наличием в новых Mac платформах UEFI поставив 2 операционные системы 64-х битную Windows и оставив Mac. Так что можно, но не легко.
6. Устаревший это примерно на 2016 год 2009, очень сильные модели и для игр подойдут, но апгрейд ради игр хорошая идея, ибо это не замена компьютера с нуля.
7. Текстовые процессоры, графические профессиональные редакторы, мессенджеры и браузеры, почтовые программы.
8.What basic utilities are included with Windows and Mac operating systems?
Windows содержит простые утилиты как простой графический редактор, просмотр картинок, базовые возможности просмотра видео/музыки, калькулятор и настройка за программным обеспечением, где есть так же защита и много сетевых утилит для соединения например жёстких дисков разных компьютеров.
Mac да хрен его знает никогда им не пользовался!
9.How do iPhones provide adaptive utilities for people who can’t see the screen?
х. й знает
iPhone да хрен его знает никогда им не пользовался!
10.Why is it important to know where to locate the version numbers for device drivers?
что бы знать пора ли их обновить ради улучшенной поддержки устройства.
11.How can word processing software help improve your writing?
Исправляя синтаксические ошибки он является как бы проверочным редактором перед выпуском с удобством исправления, базой слов и просмотром и редактированием тех же текстов.
12.How does spreadsheet software work?
Табличное программное обеспечение работает сохраняя важные данные в свои ячейки в которых очень высокая скорость поиска, а так же большие возможности сортировки и вывода информации по строкам и таблицам, примеры тому очень популярные MySQL, Excel.
Understanding Operating Systems
Computer Basics: Understanding Operating Systems
Lesson 8: Understanding Operating Systems
What is an operating system?
An operating system is the most important software that runs on a computer. It manages the computer’s memory and processes, as well as all of its software and hardware. It also allows you to communicate with the computer without knowing how to speak the computer’s language. Without an operating system, a computer is useless.
Watch the video below to learn more about operating systems.
Looking for the old version of this video? You can still view it here.
The operating system’s job
Your computer’s operating system (OS) manages all of the software and hardware on the computer. Most of the time, there are several different computer programs running at the same time, and they all need to access your computer’s central processing unit (CPU), memory, and storage. The operating system coordinates all of this to make sure each program gets what it needs.
Types of operating systems
Operating systems usually come pre-loaded on any computer you buy. Most people use the operating system that comes with their computer, but it’s possible to upgrade or even change operating systems. The three most common operating systems for personal computers are Microsoft Windows, macOS, and Linux.
Modern operating systems use a graphical user interface, or GUI (pronounced gooey). A GUI lets you use your mouse to click icons, buttons, and menus, and everything is clearly displayed on the screen using a combination of graphics and text.
Each operating system’s GUI has a different look and feel, so if you switch to a different operating system it may seem unfamiliar at first. However, modern operating systems are designed to be easy to use, and most of the basic principles are the same.
Microsoft created the Windows operating system in the mid-1980s. There have been many different versions of Windows, but the most recent ones are Windows 10 (released in 2015), Windows 8 (2012), Windows 7 (2009), and Windows Vista (2007). Windows comes pre-loaded on most new PCs, which helps to make it the most popular operating system in the world.
Check out our tutorials on Windows Basics and specific Windows versions for more information.
macOS (previously called OS X) is a line of operating systems created by Apple. It comes preloaded on all Macintosh computers, or Macs. Some of the specific versions include Mojave (released in 2018), High Sierra (2017), and Sierra (2016).
According to StatCounter Global Stats, macOS users account for less than 10% of global operating systems—much lower than the percentage of Windows users (more than 80%). One reason for this is that Apple computers tend to be more expensive. However, many people do prefer the look and feel of macOS over Windows.
Check out our macOS Basics tutorial for more information.
Linux (pronounced LINN-ux) is a family of open-source operating systems, which means they can be modified and distributed by anyone around the world. This is different from proprietary software like Windows, which can only be modified by the company that owns it. The advantages of Linux are that it is free, and there are many different distributions—or versions—you can choose from.
According to StatCounter Global Stats, Linux users account for less than 2% of global operating systems. However, most servers run Linux because it’s relatively easy to customize.
To learn more about different distributions of Linux, visit the Ubuntu, Linux Mint, and Fedora websites, or refer to our Linux Resources. For a more comprehensive list, you can visit MakeUseOf’s list of The Best Linux Distributions.
Operating systems for mobile devices
Operating systems for mobile devices generally aren’t as fully featured as those made for desktop and laptop computers, and they aren’t able to run all of the same software. However, you can still do a lot of things with them, like watch movies, browse the Web, manage your calendar, and play games.
To learn more about mobile operating systems, check out our Mobile Devices tutorials.